Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (30%)
Part Ⅱ Vocabulary (10%)
Directions: In this section all the sentencesare incomplete, Four words or phrases, marked A, B, C and D. are given beneatheach of them. You are to choose the word or phrase that best complete the sentences.Then, mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.
31. A good night’s sleep is believed to help slow the stomach’semptying, produce a smoother, less abrupt absorption of sugar, and will better______ brain metabolism.
32.The explosion and the oil spill below the surface of the Gulf of Mexico left my mind in such a ______that I couldn’t get to sleep.
33. Coronary heart attacks occur more commonly in those with highblood pressure, in the obese, in cigarette smokers, and in those ______toprolonged emotional and mental strain.
34. Most colds are acquired by children in schooland then ______to adults.
35. Several of the most populous nations in the word ______at thelower end of the table of real GDP per capita last year.
36. Presently this kind of anti-depressant is still in clinical______, even though the concept has been around since 1900s.
37. Studies revealed that exposure to low-level radiation for a longtime may weaken the immune system, ______aging, and cause cancer.
38. The mayor candidate’s personality traits, being modest andgenerous, ______people in his favor before the election.
39. With its graceful movement and salubrious effects on health, TaiChi has a strong ______to a vast multitude of people.
40. If you are catching a train, it is always better to be______early than even a fraction of a minute too late.
Directions: Each of the followingsentences has a word or phrase underlined. There are four words or phrasesbeneath each sentence. Choose the word or phrase which can best keep themeaning of the original sentence if it is substituted for the underlined part.Make you answer on the ANSWER SHEET.
41. All Nobel Prize winners’ success is a process of long-termaccumulation, in which lasting efforts are indispensable.
42. The Queen’s presence imparted an air of elegance to thedrinks reception at Buckingham Palace in London.
43. Physicians are clear that thyroid dysfunction is manifestin growing children in the form of mental and physical retardation.
44. The mechanism that the eye can accommodate itself todifferent distances has been applied to automatic camera, which marks arevolutionary technique advance.
45. Differences among believers are common; however, it was thepressure of religious persecution that exacerbated their conflicts andcreated the split of the union.
46. When Picasso was particularly poor, he might have tried to obliteratethe original composition by painting over it on canvases.
47. For the sake of animal protection, environmentalists deploredthe construction program of a nuclear power station.
48. Political figures in particular are held to very strictstandards of moral fidelity.
49. The patient complained that his doctor had been negligentin not giving him a full examination.
50. She has been handling all the complaints without wrathfor a whole morning.
For years,scientists have been warning us that the radiation from mobile phones isdetrimental to our health, without actually having any evidence to back these 51up. However, research now suggests that mobile phone radiation has atleast one positive side effect: it can help prevent Alzheimer’s, 52 in the mice that acted as testsubjects.
It’s beensuspected, though never proven, that heavy use of mobile phones is bad for yourhealth. It’s thought that walking around with a cell phone permanently attachedto the side of your bead is almost sure to be 53 yourbrain. And that may well be true, but I’d rather wait until it’s proven beforegiving up that part of my daily life.
But what has nowbeen proven, in a very perfunctory manner, is that mobile phone radiation canhave an effect on your brain. 54 inthis case it was a positive rather than negative effect.
According to BBCNews, the Florida Alzheimer Disease Research Center conducted a study on 96mice to see if the radiation given off by mobile phone could affect the onsetof Alzheimer’s.
Some of the mice were “genetically altered to develop beta-amyloidplaques in their brains” 55 they aged. These are a marker ofAlzheimer’s. All 96 mice were then “exposed to the electro-magnetic 56 generated by a standard phone for two one-hour periods each day for seven to nine months.” The lucky things.
57 , the experiment showedthat the mice altered to be predisposed to dementia were protected from thedisease if exposed before the onset of the illness. Their cognitive abilitieswere so unimpaired as to be virtually 58 to themice not genetically altered in any way.
Unfortunately, although the results are positive, the scientists don’tactually know why exposure to mobile phone radiation has this effect. But it’shoped that further study and testing could result in a non-invasive 59for preventing and treating Alzheimer’s disease.
Autopsies carried out on the mice also concluded no ill-effects oftheir exposure to the radiation. However, the fact that the radiation preventedAlzheimer’s means mobile phones 60 our brains andbodies in ways not yet explored. And it’s sure there are negatives as well asthis one positive.
51. A. devices B.risks C.phenomena D.claims
52. A. at least B.at most C.as if D.as well
53. A. blocking B.cooking C.exhausting D.cooling
54. A. Except B.Even C.Despite D.Besides
55. A. until B.when C.as D.unless
56. A. range B.continuum C.spectrum D.field
57. A. Reasonably B.Consequently C.Amazingly D.Undoubtedly
58. A. identical B.beneficial C.preferable D.susceptible
59. A. effort B.method C.hurt D.account
60. A. do affect B.did affect C.is affecting D.could have affected
Directions : In this there are sixpassages, each of which is followed by five question. For each question thereare four possible answer marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and markthe latter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.
I have justreturned from Mexico, where I visited a factory making medical masks. Facedwith fierce competition, the owner has cut his costs by outsourcing some of hisproduction. Scores of people work for him in their homes, threading elasticinto masks by hand. They are paid below the minimum wage, with no job securityand no healthcare provision.
Users of medicalmasks and other laboratory gear probably give little thought to where theirequipment comes from. That needs to change. A significant proportion of theseproducts are made in the developing world by low-paid people with inadequatelabour rights. This leads to human misery on a tremendous scale.
Take lab coats.Many are made in India, where most cotton farmers are paid an unfair price fortheir crops and factory employees work illegal hours for poor pay.
One-fifth of theworld's surgical instruments are made in northern Pakistan. When I visited acouple of years ago I found most workers toiling 12 hours a day, seven days aweek, for less than a dollar a day, exposed to noise, metal dust and toxicchemicals. Thousands of children, some as young as 7, work in the industry.
To wininternational contracts, factory owners must offer rock-bottom prices and consequentlydrive down wages and labor conditions as far as they can. We laboratoryscientists in the developed world may unwittingly be encouraging this: we askhow much our equipment will cost, but which of us asks who made it and how muchthey were paid?
This is no smallmatter. Science is supposed to benefit humanity, but because of the conditionsunder which their tools are made, many scientists may actually be causing harm.
What can bedone? A knee-jerk boycott of unethical goods is not the answer; it would justmake things worse for workers in those manufacturing zones. What we need is tostart asking suppliers to be transparent about where and how their products aremanufactured and urge them to improve their manufacturing practices.
It can be done.Many universities are committed to fair trade in the form of ethically sourcedtea, coffee or bananas. That model should be extended to laboratory goods.
There are signsthat things are moving .Over the past few years I have worked with healthservices in the UK and in Sweden. Both have recently instituted ethicalprocurement practices. If science is truly going to help humanity, it needs tofollow suit.
61. From the medical masks to the labcoats, the author is trying to tell us ______.
A. the practiceof occupational protection in the developing world
B. thedeveloping countries plagued by poverty and disease
C. the cheapestlabor in the developing countries
D. the humanmisery behind them
62. The concerning phenomenon the authorhad observed, according to the passage ______.
A. is nothingbut the repetition of the miserable history
B. could havebeen even exaggerated
C. isunfamiliar to the wealthy west
D. isprevailing across the word
63. The author argues that when researchers in the wealthy west buytools of their trade, they should ______.
A. have thesome concern with the developing countries
B. be blind totheir sources for the sake of humanity
C. pursue goodbargains in the international market
D. spare athought for how they were made
64. A proper course of action suggested bythe author is ______.
A. to refuse toimport the unethical goods from the developing world
B. to askscientists to tell the truth as the prime value of their work
C. to urge themanufactures to address the immoral issues
D. to improvethe transparency of international contracts
65. By saying at the end of the passage that if science is trulygoing to help humanity, it needs to follow suit, the author means that ______.
A. thescientific community should stand up for all humanity
B. the primevalue of scientists’ work is to tell the truth
C. laboratory goodsalso need to be ethically sourced
D. because ofscience, there is hope for humanity
A litterinformation is a dangerous thing. A lot of information, if it’s inaccurate orconfusing, even more so. This is a problem for anyone trying to spend or investin an environmentally sustainable way. Investors are barraged with indexespurporting to describe companies’ eco-credentials, some of dubious quality.Green labels on consumer products are ubiquitous, but their claims are hard toverify. The confusion is evident from the New Scientist’s analysis of whetherpublic perception of companies’ green credentials reflect reality. It showsthat many companies considered “green” have done little to earn thatreputation, while others do not get sufficient credit for their efforts to reduceby consumers and big investors will help propel us towards a green economy.
At present, itis too easy to make unverified claims. Take disclosure of greenhouse gasemission, for example. There are voluntary schemes such as the CarbonDisclosure Project, but little scrutiny of the figures companies submit, whichmeans investors may be misled.
Measurements canbe difficult to interpret, too, like those for water use. In this case, contextis crucial: a little from rain-soaked Ireland is not the same as a little drawnfrom the Arizona desert.
Similar problemsbedevil “green” labels attached to individual products. Here, the computerequipment rating system developed by the Green Electronics Council shows theway forward. Its criteria come from the IEEE, the world’s leading, professionalassociation for technology.
Other schemes,such as the “sustainability index” planned by US retail giant Walmart, arebroader. Devising rigorous standard for a large number of different types ofproduct will be though, placing a huge burden on the academic-led consortiumthat is doing the underlying scientific work.
Ourinvestigation also reveals that many companies choose not to disclose data.Some will want to keep it that way. This is why we need legal requirements forfull disclosure of pay. Then market forces will drive companies to clear uptheir acts.
Let’s hope wecan rise to this challenge. Before we can have a green economy we need a greeninformation economy—and it’s the quality of information, as well as its quantity,that will count.
66. “The confusion” at the begging of the 2ndparagraph refers to ______.
A. where tospend or invert in a sustainable way
B. an array ofconsumer products to choose
C. a fog ofunreliable green information
D. little informationon eco-credibility
67. From the New Scientists analysis it canbe inferred that in many cases ______.
A.eco-credibility is abused
B. a green economyis crucial
C. anenvironment impact is lessened
D. greencredentials promote green economy
68. Form unverified claims to difficult measurements and then toindividual products, the author suggests that ______.
A.eco-credibility is a game between scientists and manufactures
B. neitherscientists nor manufactures are honest
C. it is vitalto build a green economy
D. betterinformation is critical
69. To address the issue, the author iscrying for ______.
A. transparentcorporate management
B. establishingsustainability indexes
C. toughacademic-led surveillance
D. strict legalweapon
70. Which of the following can be the bestinference from the last paragraph?
A. The toughestchallenge is the best opportunity
B. It is timefor another green revolution
C. Informationshould be free at all
D. No quantity,no quality
People areextraordinarily skilled at spotting cheats—much better than they are atdetecting rule-breaking that does not involve cheating. A study showing justhow good we are at this adds weight to the theory that our exceptionalbrainpower arose through evolutionary pressures to acquire specific cognitiveskills.
The still-controversialidea that humans have specialized decision-making systems in addition togeneralized reasoning ability has been around for decades. Its advocates pointout that the ability to identify untrustworthy people should be favoredevolutionarily, since cheats risk undermining the social interactions in whichpeople trade goods or services for mutual benefit.
To test whetherwe have a special ability to reason about cheating, Leda Cosmides, anevolutionary psychologist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, andher colleagues used a standard psychological test called the Wason selectiontask, which tests volunteers' ability to reason about "if/then"statements.
The researchersset up scenarios in which they asked undergraduate volunteers to imagine theywere supervising workers sorting applications for admission to two schools: agood one in a district. Where school taxes are high, and a poor one on anequally wealthy, but lightly taxed district. The hypothetical workers weresupposed to follow a rule that specified “if a student is admitted to the goodschool, they must live in the highly taxed district”.
Half the time,the test subjects were told that the workers had children of their own applyingto the school, thus having a motive to cheat; the rest of the time they weretold the workers were merely absent-minded and sometimes made innocent errors.Then the test subjects were asked how they would verify that the workers werenot breaking the rule.
Cosmides foundthat when the “supervisors” thought they were checking for innocent errors,just 9 of 33, or 27 percent, got the right answer—looking for a studentadmitted to the good school who did not live in the highly-taxed district. Incontrast, when the supervisors thought they were watching for cheats they didmuch better, with 23 of 34, or 68 percent getting the right answer.
This suggeststhat people are, indeed more adept at spotting cheat than at detecting mererule-breaking. Cosmides says, “Any cues that it’s just an innocent mistake actuallyinactivate the detection mechanism.”
The result iswhat you would expect if natural selection had favored this specific ability inearly, pro-social humans—and is not at all what would happen under selectionfor generalized intelligence, Cosmides says. “My claim is that there is nothingdomain-general in the mind, just that that can’t be the only thing going on inthe mind.”
Otherpsychologists remain skeptical of this conclusion. “If you want to concludethat therefore there’s a module in the mind for detecting cheaters, I see zeroevidence for that,” says Steven Sloman, a cognitive scientist at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. “It’s certainly possible that it’s something welearned through experience. There is no evidence that it’s anything innate.”
71. The findings of the study were in favorof ______.
A. thehighly-advocated skills of cheating at school
B. the relationbetween intelligence and evolution
C. thephenomenon of cheating at school
D. the humaninnate ability to cheat
72. The test “supervisors” appeared to bemore adept at ______.
A. spottingcheats than detecting mere rule-breaking
B. detectingmere rule-breaking than spotting cheats
C. spottingtheir own children cheating than others doing it
D. detectingcheats in the highly taxes district than in the lightly taxed one
73. When she says that … that can’t be the only thing going on inthe mind, Cosmides most probably implies that ______.
A. cheating ishighly motivated in the social interactions
B. our specificcognitive skills can serve an evolutionary purpose
C. there is nosuch a mental thing as a specialized decision making system
D. the abilityto identify untrustworthy people should be favored evolutionarily
74. In response to Cosmides’ claim, Slomanwould say that ______.
A. It was greatpossibility
B. It would bemisleading
C. It wasunbelievable
75. Which of the following can be the besttitle for the passage?
A. Cheating atSchool
B. Cheating asthe Human Nature
C. ImaginaryIntelligence and Cheating
D. IntelligenceEvolved to Root Out Cheats
For manyenvironmentalists, all human influence on the planet is bad. Many naturalscientist implicitly share this outlook. This is not unscientific, but it cancreate the impression that greens and environmental scientists areauthoritarian tree-huggers who value nature above people. That doesn’t playwell with mainstream society, as the apparent backlash against climate sciencereveals.
Environmentalistsneed to find a new story to tell. Like it or not, we now live in theanthropocene(人类世)—anage in which humans are perturbing many of the planet’s natural systems, fromthe water to the acidity of the oceans. We cannot wish that away we must recognizeit and manage our impacts.
Johan Rockstrom,head of the Stockholm Environment Institute in Sweden, and colleagues havedistilled recent research on how Earth system work into list of nine “planetaryboundaries” that we must stay within to live sustainably. It is preliminary work,and many will disagree with where the boundaries are set. But the point is tooffer a new way of thinking about our relationship with the environment—ascience-based picture that accents a certain level of human impact and evenallows us some room to expand. The result is a breath of fresh air; though weare already well past three of the boundaries, we haven’t trashed the placeyet.
It is in thesame spirit that we also probe the basis for key claims in theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s 2007 report on climate impacts.This report has been much discussed since our revelations about itsunsubstantiated statement on melting Himalayan glaciers .Why return to thetopic? Because there is a sense that the IPCC shares the same anti-human agendaand, as a result, is too dangerous of unverified numbers. While the majority ofthe report is assuredly rigorous, there is no escaping the fact that parts ofit make clams that go beyond the science.
For example, thechapter on Africa exaggerates a claim about crashes in farm yields, and alsohighlights projections of increased water stress in some regions while ignoringprojections in the same study that point to reduced water stress in otherregions. These errors are not trifling. They are among the report’s headline conclusions.
Above all, weneed a dispassionate view of the state of the plant and our likely futureimpact on it. There is no room for complacency: Rockstrom’s analysis shows usthat we face real dangers, but exaggerating our problems is not the way tosolve them.
76. As the 1st paragraph implies, there isbetween environmentalists and mainstream society____.
D. a consensus
77. Within the planetary boundaries, as Rochstromimplies, ____.
A. we humanshave gone far beyond the limitations
B. our humanactivities are actually moderate in degree
C. a certainlevel of human impact is naturally acceptable
D. it is urgentto modify our relationship with the environment
78. The point, based on Rochstrom’s investigation,is simply that ____.
A. they madethe first classification of Earth systems
B. it is not todeny but to manage impacts on the planet
C. we areapproaching the anthropocene faster than expected
D. human beingsare rational and responsible creatures on earth
79. Critical of the IPCC’s 2007 report, theauthor argues that they ____.
A. missed themost serious problem there
B. cannot becalled scientists at all
C. were poorlyassembled for the mission
D. value natureabove people
80. It can be concluded form the passage that if we are to managethe anthropocene successfully, we____.
A. mustredefine our relationship with the environment
B. should nottake it seriously but to take it easy
C. need a newway of thinking about nature
D. need coolerheads and clearer statistics
Humanity haspassed a milestone: more people live in cities than in rural areas .The currentrate of urbanization is unprecedented in our history. In 1950, only 29% ofpeople lived in cities; by 2050, 70% are projected to do so—most of them inpoorer countries. Among many other issues, this rapid concentration makescities a front line in the battles against climate change and air pollution. Confrontingthe challenges of rampant urbanization demands integrated, multidisciplinaryapproaches, and new thinking.
Take thebuilding boom associated with the increased wealth of urban areas, and itsimpact on greenhouse-gas emissions. In China alone, the United NationsEnvironmental Programme estimates the energy demand for heating homes builtover the next decade could increase by some 430 terawatt-hours, or 4% of China's total energy use in 2003. Worldwide, the energy consumed by buildings alreadyaccounts for around 45% of greenhouse-gas emissions.
Fortunately,researchers in Germany and elsewhere have already shown that they can reducethat energy consumption by 80–90%, just by overhauling obsolete buildingdesigns and using existing technologies. These ultra-efficient buildings demandthat planners, architects, engineers and building scientists work together fromthe outset, and require higher levels of expertise than conventional buildings.But such buildings are often cheaper than those built using conventional methods.Research is also needed to develop technologies, materials and energy concepts,but green building research today is fragmented and poorly funded.
Expanding citiesmust embrace such technologies and strategies—and not just in the developednations. Many poorer countries have a rich tradition of adapting buildings tolocal practices, environments and climates—a home-grown approach to integrateddesign that has been all but been lost in the West. They now have anopportunity to combine these traditional approaches with modern technologies.
Integratedthinking is also needed to mitigate urban air pollution, which is becoming aserious health and environmental risk in many regions—as shown by China's struggle to clean up Beijing's air for the Olympics. Understanding air pollution willrequire researchers from multiple disciplines, from atmospheric chemistry tometeorology, working over scales from street level to global. And reducing itwill require integrated policies for urban planning, transport and housing—notleast to reduce the use of cars.
81.The passage begins with ____.
A. theglobalization of poverty
B. a newchallenge to mankind
C. a newdisease of civilization
D. the globalphenomenon of weather change
82.Form the illustration of China, the author is trying to tell us that____.
A. Chinesecitizens neglect their impact on greenhouse-gas emission
B. the pace ofurbanization is being accelerated at an alarming rate
C. rapidurbanization will increase greenhouse-gas emissions
D. the buildingboom is running faster there than elsewhere
83. Which of the following can meet thedemand by the rampant urbanization?
A. Shrinkingcities by 80%–90%.
B. Buildingultra-efficient buildings.
C. Restoringthe conventional buildings.
D. Abandoningexisting building technologies
84. The author thinks highly of thosepoorer countries____.
A. introducing thedeveloped countries green technologies
B. buildingmegacities while promoting energy efficiency
C. staying awayform modern building technologies
D. integrating theirbuildings with nature
85. China’s struggle to clean up Beijing’s air for the Olympics,according to the passage, is a convincing example of ____.
A. theinevitability of our clean and sustainable metropolitan future
B. thenecessity of encouraging citizens to use public transportation
C. the urgencyof addressing climate change in the developing countries
D. theimportance of integrated thinking to meeting the challenges of urbanization
On June 26,2000, two scientific teams announced at the White House that they haddeciphered virtually the entire human genome, a prodigious feat that involveddetermining the exact sequence of chemical units in human genetic material. Anenthusiastic President Clinton predicted a revolution in “the diagnosis,prevention and treatment of most, if not all, human diseases.”
Now, 10 yearslater, a sobering realization has set in. Decoding the genome has led tostunning advances in scientific knowledge and DNA-processing technologies butit has done relatively little to improve medical treatments or human health.
To be fair, manyscientists at the time were warning that it would be a long, slow slog to reapclinical benefits.
And there havebeen some important advances, such as powerful new drugs for a few cancers andgenetic tests that can predict whether people with breast cancer needchemotherapy. But the original hope that close study of the genome wouldidentify mutations or variants that cause diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s andheart ailments—and generate treatments for them—has given way to realizationthat the causes of most diseases are enormously complex and not easily tracedto a simple mutation or two.
In the long run,it seems likely that the genomic revolution will pay off. But no one can besure. Even if the genetic roots of some major diseases are identified, there isno guarantee that treatments can be found. The task facing science and industryin coming decades is at least as challenging as the original deciphering of thehuman genome.
86. Back in the year 2000, what wasexciting about the deciphered genome?
A. Its claim atthe turn of the new millennium.
B. Its greatpotential of producing medical value.
C. PresidentClinton’s predicting of a moral controversy.
D. Itsannouncement for the first time at the White House.
87. Clinically, according to the passage,the prophecy ten years later _____.
A. is providedto be fair enough
B. is realizedin clinical trials
C. turns out tobe a reality
D. is far formrealization
88. Form our disappointment we have torealize that _____.
A. most humandiseases cannot be conquered
B. thedeciphering of the human genome was fruitless
C. the cause ofdisease cannot be simply explained by a mutation or two
D. many clinicalharvests have nothing to do with the deciphered genome
89. It can be concluded form the passagethat _____.
A. difficultiesare hard to predict in doing science
B. it is no usefinding the genetic roots of diseases
C. scientistsare not supposed to make any predictions
D. the clinicalbenefits of the genomic revolution will take time
90. The writer’s tone in the passage is______.
Part Ⅳ Writing (20%)
We cannot live without breathing, but it does notnecessarily mean that we are breathing in the right way. Statistics have shownthat most people aren’t aware of the proper way to breathe, and that wrong waysof breathing can lead to various diseases.
The proper breathing method is called deep abdominalbreathing. It can bring many benefits to us. First, deep breathing can help usrelieve pressure and reduce insomnia. Most of pains caused by pressure can berid of if we try deep breathing on a regular basis. Second, under suchcircumstances, almost all the alveoli can work to produce more prostaglandin,which broadens the blood veins and thus lowers blood pressure. Mostimportantly, deep breathing can prolong life span by eliminating fatigue andoffering you good mood and plenty of energy.
Here are two keys points to in exercising proper breathing.One is to slow down and breathe in enough air to fill your alveoli with air.The other is to breathe out as completely as possible, so that waste gas can bethoroughly expelled to ensure more air exchange. You may start it as a merepractice, but once you make it part of your life, soon you will find itsignificantly beneficial.