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招收攻读博士学位研究生入学考试

   PART ONE: Grammar (15 points) 

 
  Directions: Below each sentence, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose 
 
  the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the sentence or that best completes the sentence. Please write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.  
 
  1. The quality of teaching should be measured by the degree        the students’ potentiality is developed. A. of which  B. with which  C. in which  D. to which  
 
  2. Another food crop raised by Indians        strange to the European was called Indian corn.  
 
  A. who were  B. that were   C. that was  D. who was                  
 
  3. We moved to the new house in the suburbs so that the kids would have a garden           . A. in which to play  B. to play with C. to play  D. where to play                 
 
  4. There are many copper mines in the state of Arizona,        contributes significantly to the state’s economy. A. a fact    B. which fact   C. whose fact    D. that  
 
  5. Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe        it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced. A. so that   B. but that   C. in that  D. provided that              
 
  6. Nearly all trees contains a mix of polymers that can burn like petroleum       properly extracted. A. after   B. if    C. when it    D. is  
 
  7. The early years of the United States government were characterized by a debate concerning         or individual states should have more power. A. whether the federal government  B. either the federal government   C. that the federal government   D. the federal government
 
  8. Exploration of the Solar System is continuing, and at the present rate of progress all the planets         within the next 50 years. A. will have been contacted   B. will have contacted  C. will be contacted         D. will contact  
 
  9. By the year of 2025, scientists probably         a cure for cancer.      A. will be discovering    B. are discovering    C. will have discovered     D. have discovered  
 
  10. Thomas Edison’s first patented invention was a device        in Congress.     A. for counting votes B. that counting votes   C. counts votes D. counted votes 
 
   
 
  11. Using many symbols makes     to put a large amount of information on a single map.   A. possible  B. it is possible    C. it possible D. that possible 
 
   
 
  12. Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely       to the outside world.   A. being lost  B. having lost    C. losing  D. lost 
 
   
 
  13. Beef cattle        of all livestock for economic growth in the certain geographic regions.     
 
  A. the most are important   B. are the most important     C. is the most important   D. that are most important 
 
   
 
  14.        advance and retreat in their eternal rhythms, but the surface of the sea itself is never at rest.     
 
  A. Not only when the tides do  B. As the tides not only do    C. Not only do the tides    D. Do the tides not only  
 
  15.        divorce ourselves from the masses of the people.     A. In no time we should   B. In no time should we     C. At no time we should    D. At no time should we 
 
   
 
  PART TWO: Reading comprehension (20 points) 
 
  Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some 
 
  questions or unfinished sentences. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet. 
 
  Passage 1 (5 points) 
 
  The good news made headlines nationwide: Deaths from several kinds of cancer have declined significantly in recent years. But the news has to be bittersweet for many cancer patients and their families. Every year, more than 500000 people in the United States still die of cancer. In fact, more than half of all patients diagnosed with cancer will die of their disease within a few years. And while it’s true survival is longer today than in the past, the
 
  quality of life for these patients is often greatly diminished. Cancer – and many of the treatments used to fight it - causes pain, nausea, fatigue, and anxiety that routinely go undertreated or untreated. 
 
  In the nation’s single-minded focus on curing cancer, we have inadvertently devalued the critical need for palliative care, which focuses on alleviating physical and psychological symptoms over the course of the disease. Nothing would have a greater impact on the daily lives of cancer patients and their families than good symptom control and supportive therapy. Yet the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the federal government’s leader in cancer research and training, spent less than one percent of its 1999 budget on any aspect of research or training in palliative care.  
 
  The nation needs to get serious about reducing needless suffering. NCI should commit to and fund research aimed at improving symptom control and palliative care. NCI also could designate “centers of excellence” among the cancer centers it recognizes. To get that designation, centers would deliver innovative, top-quality palliative care to all segments of the populations the centers serve; train professionals in medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, and other disciplines to provide palliative care; and conduct research.  
 
  Insurance coverage for palliative and hospice care also contributes to the problem by forcing people to choose between treatment or hospice care. This “either/or” approach does not readily allow these two types of essential care to be integrated. The Medicare hospice benefit is designed specifically for people in the final stages of illness and allows enrollment only if patients are expected to survive six months or less. The benefit excludes patients from seeking both palliative care and potentially life-extending treatment. 
 
  That makes hospice enrollment an obvious deterrent for many patients. And hospices, which may have the most skilled practitioners and the most experience in administering palliative care, cannot offer their services to people who could really benefit but still are pursuing active treatment. 
 
  It is innately human to comfort and provide care to those suffering from cancer, particularly those close to death. Yet what seems self-evident at an individual, personal level has not guided policy at the level of institutions in this country. Death is inevitable, but severe suffering is not. To offer hope for a long life of the highest possible quality and to deliver the best quality cancer care from diagnoses to death, our public institutions need to move toward policies that value and promote palliative care.      16. Palliative care is concerned with improving patients’        . A. survival rates   B. quality of life   C. lifespans    
 
  D. options for health insurance providers 
 
  17. According to the author, research on palliative care for       . A. is more important than research for cancer cures B. has been overlooked by researchers C. is virtually non-existent 
 
  D. is regarded by researchers as a frivolous topic 

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